A pane is a horizontally scrollable area of window like a drawing canvas; a layer is one of a set of things that can be shown on a pane, such as a waveform, a line graph of measurements, or a subdivision of the horizontal axis into differently coloured segments. You can stack any number of panes above one another vertically: The horizontal axis of each pane corresponds to time in audio sample frames, and all of the stacked panes will be aligned to the same sample frame at their centre points.
Each pane can then display any number of layers, which are conceptually stacked on top of one another like layers in a graphics application. So for example, you may have a spectrogram layer "at the back", with line data, onset positions and notes displayed in separate layers "in front", i.
There are several different kinds of layer, which differ in the types of data they can represent: A pane with four layers: Layers that are stacked on the same pane will always share the same magnification and alignment on the x time axis. However, they do not have to have identical scales on the y axis — although Sonic Visualiser will attempt to align them by default if their scale units match. One pane is always the "active" pane, and this one is marked with a black vertical bar to its left.
The front layer on that pane is the active layer. Any menu operation in Sonic Visualiser that works on a single layer will always operate on the active layer. While most of the annotation layer types are interactively editable on the pane itself, layers corresponding directly to audio data such as waveform and spectrogram layers are not. Sonic Visualiser starts with a single visible pane. When you import an audio file, it adds time ruler and waveform layers to that pane, displaying the new audio file. There are then three menus dedicated to adding new panes and layers to the display, with various kinds of data in them:.
The Layer menu contains the same functions as the Pane menu. When invoked from the Layer menu, they add a new layer to the current pane instead of adding a whole new pane. The Layer menu also contains functions to add empty layers of each of the editable layer types: You can also add an existing layer to another pane, thus displaying the same thing more than once, or add a slice of an existing colour 3D plot layer. The Transform menu lists things you can do to your audio in order to produce new layers with data in them.
Transforms include applying audio effects plugins to produce different audio data, and applying feature extraction plugins to extract other kinds of data from the audio. See Transforms and Plugins. You can also add a new layer by importing an existing set of annotation data from a file. Display Properties Each layer, whether editable or not, has a set of adjustable display properties. These are shown in a corresponding stack to the right of the pane.
To save space, not all of the names of the properties are shown; you can hold the mouse pointer over a control to see the name of its property in a tooltip. Click on the numbered tab for a layer in this stack to "raise" that layer to the front of the pane and adjust its properties.
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The available properties for the different layer types are discussed in the sections about those layers, below. There is also a tab corresponding to the pane itself, which can be used to control the way the pane tracks during playback and its alignment with other panes. The Global Scroll and Global Zoom settings both on by default make the pane follow any horizontal scrolling and zooming that happens in other panes that also have these settings on, so that when you scroll or zoom in one of them, they all scroll or zoom.
The Follow Playback control allows you to choose whether the pane will track playback using a playback cursor, paging when it reaches the edge of the pane Page ; or whether it will scroll along with the playback Scroll ; or neither.
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A Sonic Visualiser "session" is a record of almost everything you see in front of you in the Sonic Visualiser window: You can save the entire session to a. Reloading this file should restore your session state, provided that the original audio file can also be found. If you are passing session files to other Sonic Visualiser users, be sure to make sure they have the audio data as well, as this is never stored in the session file. Sonic Visualiser provides full multi-level Undo and Redo. Almost all actions that change the session you see in front of you — with the exception of scrolling and zooming — can be undone.
This includes adding and removing layers and panes and changing the display properties for a layer, as well as more conventional edits. Sonic Visualiser has six "tools", which control the way mouse actions interact with the panes. These can be activated using the tool icons on the toolbar:. Select tool. Used for selecting areas. Click and drag in any pane to select a region in time. See also Selection , below. Edit tool. Used for moving items in editable layers.
Draw tool. Used for adding items to editable layers. Erase tool. Used for removing items from editable layers. Measure tool. Used to make measurements of pixel regions, in terms of time and scale values. See Measurements. Selection With the select tool active, click and drag within any pane to select a region. The selection boundaries will snap to the resolution or features present on the active layer.
For example, if you drag a selection on a spectrogram layer, the selection's boundaries will be aligned with the spectrogram's FFT window hops; if you drag a selection on a time-instants layer, its boundaries will snap to instants present on the layer; if you drag a selection on a waveform layer, its boundaries will simply snap to audio sample frames. Pressing Shift as you start dragging a selection will defeat this snap effect, forcing the selection to snap to the nearest audio sample to each pixel boundary.
You can select more than one separate region at a time, by holding Ctrl as you start selecting the second and subsequent regions to add them to the existing selection. You can also click-drag the left and right edges of a selection to change its extents after it has been made.
A selection within Sonic Visualiser conceptually consists of one or more regions in time. When you select a region in a layer, you are selecting a period of time across all layers; you are not selecting the visible items that happen to fall within that region in that one layer. Even if items in a layer are above or below the visible range of the layer's vertical scale i. If you make a selection in one layer and then make a different layer active before carrying out an editing action that operates on the active layer, it will operate on the new active layer — not on the items in the layer you originally made the selection in.
An advantage of this is that it is very easy to select all the items in one layer that fall between certain items in another layer — make the second layer active, make a selection which will snap to the item positions on that layer , then make the first layer active again. Most of Sonic Visualiser's annotation layer types are interactively editable. Layers corresponding directly to audio data such as waveform and spectrogram layers are not editable.
Sonic Visualiser is not an audio editor. To move an individual item in a layer, make sure the edit tool is active and then click on and drag the item. If the item is relatively wide on the screen, you may have to click and drag its left hand edge for the drag to take effect. When dragging an item, there is a certain amount of "resistance" when you first move the mouse before the item begins to move to help avoid accidental edits.
You can override this by holding down the Shift key when you start dragging, if you want to make a small correction. You can also edit the details of an item directly, by double-clicking on it with either the navigate or edit tool selected. The advantage of using the navigate tool is that it removes the risk of accidentally editing the point while double-clicking on it. To move a set of items at once, select the region around them, then switch to the edit tool and drag the selected region. Cut and Paste Sonic Visualiser allows you to cut and paste between layers of different types, preserving as much information as can be reconciled with the layer types.
The items will be pasted at the same location in time as they were found in the source layer. If the target layer represents more information than the source, you will be offered various options for how to make up the values that are not present in the pasted items as shown to the right. If no suitable target layer is selected at all for example, if the layer that is active when you ask to paste is not of an editable type , then a new layer of the most appropriate type will be created automatically and the values will be pasted into it.
You can also view and edit data for a layer directly in the data editor window. If the current layer is an editable one, you can call up this window through the Edit Layer Data option on the Layer menu. You can edit any of the values in this layer simply by double-clicking on a value and typing a new one. If you want to edit one of the real-time values in the first column, enter the new value in seconds. Undo applies to any edits made in this window. By default, this window will scroll to keep time with playback. You can toggle this behaviour using the Track Playback button in the toolbar.
Although you can select items in the data editor window and delete them as well as inserting new ones, there is no connection between the selection in this window and any selection that is in place in the main window.
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- 1. Panes and Layers.
A waveform layer. Each pixel on the horizontal axis shows the peak and mean positive and negative values found in samples falling within that pixel's range at the current zoom level. The zoom level can be increased or decreased in multiples of sqrt 2 using the mouse wheel or the Up and Down cursor keys. The scale displacement is proportional to the log of the absolute voltage. An intermediate scale is used that may be non-linear, intended to make peaks more apparent than the dB scale but quiet sections easier to see than the linear scale. The Scale properties also provide a display gain control, and a "Normalize Visible Area" switch which will adjust the display gain continuously so as to ensure full scale displacement for the largest value in the visible section of the waveform.
The way the waveform layer handles multiple channels can be adjusted using the Channels display property:. A single synthetic channel will be shown, whose peaks are the mean of the peaks of the actual underlying channels. For stereo audio, a single synthetic channel will be shown, with the "positive" peaks corresponding to the left first underlying channel and the "negative" peaks corresponding to the right second channel.
Time Ruler The time ruler layer simply displays a series of labelled time divisions. A time ruler layer. The centre line is not part of the layer, but is built in to the pane. Each new pane has a time ruler layer in it by default, although you can remove or hide it. The time ruler layer is not editable. The spectrogram layer shows audio data in the frequency domain, with the Y axis corresponding to frequency and the power or phase of each frequency within a given time frame shown by the brightness or colour of the pixels corresponding to that frequency.
There are three types of spectrogram layer available in the Sonic Visualiser menus: These differ only in the initial properties the layer is set up with. You can always turn any kind of spectrogram into any other kind by adjusting its properties after it has been created. A spectrogram layer. The colour scheme used for the spectrogram can be adjusted using the Colour properties Colour, Threshold, and Colour Rotation. The Colour option allows you to select different colour maps; while most of these are smooth gradients from one colour to another, there are also two colour maps Banded and Highlight that employ sudden transitions of colour.
These can be useful with the Colour Rotation control to isolate areas with similar levels. The type of values displayed, and the way the colour scale for the spectrogram is calculated can be adjusted using the Scale display properties:. The Normalize Columns switch will cause the colours in all bins to be adjusted so that the frequency bin with the highest value in a given time frame receives the brightest available colour.
This will increase the overall brightness for quiet frames and may decrease it for loud frames. The Normalize Visible Area switch will cause the colours in all bins to be adjusted so that the frequency bin with the highest value within the visible region of the spectrogram receives the brightest available colour.
The Gain control applies a gain to the bin values before applying the display colour map. The spectrogram itself is obtained from the results of a series of fast Fourier transforms of windowed sections of the original audio. The parameters of these transforms can be adjusted using the Window display properties:.
The size of the window can be adjusted using the Window Size property. This value is critical, as it directly controls the number of available frequency bins in the resulting spectrogram. Smaller values will give a finer resolution in time; larger values will give a finer resolution in frequency. The overlap between consecutive windows can be adjusted using the Window Overlap property, which determines by what proportion of the window size the processing frames will overlap. Using a larger overlap will help to compensate for the reduced time resolution of a large window size.
The shape of the window applied to each section of audio data is not adjustable from the spectrogram properties, but can be adjusted globally in the application preferences. The available shaped windows are Hamming, Hann also known as Hanning , Blackman, Blackman-Harris and Nuttall cosine-based windows ; Gaussian, Parzen, triangular and un-windowed rectangular. The Hann window is the default and should be appropriate for most purposes. The scale used for the Y axis of the spectrogram can be adjusted using the Bins properties.
The Bin Display property controls the frequency bins that are actually shown and how they are drawn. If set to Peak Bins, only those bins containing higher values than both of their frequency neighbours in the same time frame will be drawn. If set to Frequencies, each peak's bin will be drawn with a single line at a position that corresponds to an estimate of the actual frequency present within the bin, rather than the theoretical frequency range of the bin.
This instantaneous frequency estimate is arrived at by comparing the theoretical phase difference between consecutive time frames at the nominal bin frequency with the measured phase difference. The Frequency Scale property controls whether the Y axis is proportional to frequency, or proportional to the log of the frequency and thus linearly proportional to musical pitch.
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In the latter case the spectrogram layer will use a stylised piano keyboard as its vertical scale, with the C in each octave shaded in grey. If you switch to the measure tool and move the mouse over the spectrogram, it will show the "harmonic cursor" see right.
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This is a vertical line with tick marks at the frequencies of the second harmonic, third harmonic and so on of the frequency that the mouse is currently pointing at. These frequencies are simple multiples of the fundamental, so they will be equally spaced if the frequency scale is linear, or will get closer together as they go up if the frequency scale is logarithmic.
See Measurements for other uses of the Measure tool. When selecting a region of time in a spectrogram layer, the selection will snap to the spectrogram's processing time frames. Hold the Shift key at the start of selection to defeat this. PC Download. Collector's Edition. Download for free! More info. Download now! More Info. Select Retailer. SEGAForever https: To celebrate the release of Yakuza Kiwami on PC, here's a message from series producer Masayoshi Yokoyama to all th… https: RT Lab42Games: Yakuza Kiwami is available now for PC on Steam.
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